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    Cosas de inglés.

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    Gustavo
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    Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:39 pm

    Presente simple del verbo "to run" - correr":
    Forma positiva:
    I run. (yo corro)
    You run.
    He runs.
    She runs.
    It runs.
    We run.
    You run.
    They run.

    Forma negativa:
    I do not run. (yo no corro)
    You do not run.
    He does not run.
    She does not run.
    It does not run.
    We do not run.
    You do not run.
    They do not run.

    Forma interrogativa:
    Do I run? (¿corro yo?)
    Do you run?
    Does he run?
    Does she run?
    Does it run?
    Do we run?
    Do you run?
    Do they run?

    Algunos verbos: En vez de "s", se añade "es" a la forma positiva, de la tercera persona de los verbos acabados en los siguientes sonidos; s, z, sh, ch, j ó zs. Estas formas especiales se han marcado debajo con *.

    To rush (precipitarse)

    I rush.
    You rush.
    He rushes. *
    She rushes. *
    It rushes. *
    We rush.
    You rush.
    They rush.

    USO 1 Acciones repetidas
    Usar el Presente Simple para expresar la idea de que una acción es repetida o habitual. La acción puede ser un hábito, una afición, un suceso diario, un acontecimiento previsto, o algo que ocurre a menudo. También puede ser algo que una persona a menudo olvida o por lo general no hace.

    I play tennis. (Yo juego al tenis)
    She does not play tennis. (Ella no juega al tenis)
    Does he play tennis? (¿Juega él al tenis?)
    The train leaves every morning at 8 AM. (El tren sale todas las mañanas a las Cool
    The train does not leave at 9 AM. (El tren no sale a las 9)
    When does the train usually leave? (¿Cuándo sale el tren habitualmente??
    She always forgets her purse. (Ella siempre olvida su monedero)
    He never forgets his wallet. (Él nunca olvida su cartera. )
    Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun. (Cada doce meses, la Tierra rodea sobre el Sol. )
    Does the Sun circle the Earth? (¿Rodea el sol la Tierra?)

    USO 2 Hechos o Generalizaciones

    El Presente Simple también puede indicar que el orador cree que un hecho que era verdadero ántes, es verdadero ahora, y será verdadero en el futuro. No es importante si eso es correcto o no. También es usado hacer generalizaciones sobre la gente o cosas.

    Cats like milk. (A los gatos les gusta le leche)
    Birds do not like milk. (A los pájaros no les gusta la leche)
    Do pigs like milk? (¿Le gusta la leche a los cerdos?)
    California is in America. (California está en América)
    California is not in the United Kingdom. (California no está en el Reino Unido)
    Windows are made of glass. (Las ventanas están hechas de cristal)
    Windows are not made of wood. (Las ventanas no están hechas de madera)
    New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue. (New York es una pequeña ciudad. No es importante que este hecho sea falso,)

    USO 3 Acontecimientos previstos en un futuro próximo

    Los oradores de vez en cuando usan el Presente Simple para hablar de acontecimientos previstos en un futuro próximo. Esto es más común hablando del transporte público, pero puede ser usado con otros acontecimientos previstos también.

    The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. (El tren sale esta noche a las 6 p.m.)
    The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. (El autobús no llega a las 11 a.m., llega a las 11 p.m.)
    When do we board the plane? (¿Cuando embarcamos en el avion?)
    The party starts at 8 o'clock. (La fiesta empieza a las 8 en punto)
    When does class begin tomorrow? (¿Cuándo empiezan las clases mañana?)

    USO 4 Verbos no contínuos,

    Los oradores a veces usan el Presente Simple para expresar la idea que una acción pasa o no pasa ahora. Esto sólo puede ser hecho con Verbos No continuos y ciertos Verbos Mixtos.

    I am here now. (Estoy aquí ahora)
    She is not here now. (Ella no está aquí ahora)
    He needs help right now. (Él necesita la ayuda ahora)
    He does not need help now. (Él no necesita la ayuda ahora)
    He has his passport in his hand. (Él tiene su pasaporte en la mano)
    Do you have your passport with you? (¿Llevas tu pasaporte encima?)


    ADVERB PLACEMENT (COLOCACIÓN DE ADVERBIO)

    Los ejemplos de abajo muestran la colocación para adverbios de gramática como: siempre, sólo, nunca, alguna vez, de todos modos, solamente (justo), etc.

    You only speak English. (Sólo hablas inglés)
    Do you only speak English? (¿Hablais sólo inglés?)


    Última edición por Gustavo el Miér Ago 19, 2009 1:12 am, editado 10 veces
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:41 pm

    Presente contínuo:

    Forma positiva del verbo HABLAR (hablo = estoy hablando)

    I am speaking. (Estoy hablando/hablo)
    You are speaking.
    He is speaking.
    She is speaking.
    It is speaking.
    We are speaking.
    You are speaking.
    They are speaking.

    Forma negativa:

    I am not speaking. (No estoy hablando/No hablo)
    You are not speaking.
    He is not speaking.
    She is not speaking.
    It is not speaking.
    We are not speaking.
    You are not speaking.
    They are not speaking.

    Forma interrogativa:

    Am I speaking? (¿Estoy hablando?)
    Are you speaking?
    Is he speaking?
    Is she speaking?
    Is it speaking?
    Are we speaking?
    Are you speaking?
    Are they speaking?

    USO 1 Ahora

    Use el Presente Continuo con Verbos Normales para expresar la idea que algo pasa ahora, en el momento. Esto también puede ser usado para mostrar que algo no pasa ahora.

    Examples:

    You are learning English now. (Estás aprendiendo inglés ahora)
    You are not swimming now. (No te estás bañando ahora)
    Are you sleeping? (¿Estás durmiendo?)
    I am sitting. (Estoy sentado)
    I am not standing. (No estoy sentado)
    Is he sitting or standing? (¿Está él sentado o de pié?)
    They are reading their books. (Ellos leen sus libros)
    They are not watching television. (Ellos no ven la televisión ahora)
    What are you doing? (¿Qué estás haciendo?)
    Why aren't you doing your homework? (¿Por qué no estás haciendo tus deberes?)

    USE 2 Ahora, acciones más largas en curso

    En inglés, "now" puede significar: este segundo, hoy, este mes, este año, este siglo, etcétera. A veces, usamos el Presente Continuo para decir que estamos en el proceso de hacer una acción más larga que está en curso; sin embargo, nosotros no podríamos hacerlo en este momento exacto.

    Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.) (Todas estas oraciones pueden ser dichas comiendo la cena en un restaurante)

    I am studying to become a doctor. (Estudio para ser médico)
    I am not studying to become a dentist. (No estudio para dentista)
    I am reading the book Tom Sawyer. (Estoy leyendo el libro Tom Sawyer)
    I am not reading any books right now. (Ahora no leo ningún libro)
    Are you working on any special projects at work? (¿Trabaja usted sobre algún proyecto especial en el trabajo?)
    Aren't you teaching at the university now? (¿No enseñas ahora en la universidad?)

    USO 3 Futuro próximo

    Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. (A veces, los oradores usan el Presente Contínuo para indicar que algo puede o no ocurrir en un futuro próximo)

    Examples:

    I am meeting some friends after work. (He quedado con algunos amigos para después del trabajo)
    I am not going to the party tonight. (No voy a ir a la fiesta esta noche)
    Is he visiting his parents next weekend? (¿Visitará a sus padres el próximo fin de semana?)
    Isn't he coming with us tonight? (¿No viene con nosotros esta noche?)

    USO 4 Repetición e Irritación "con Siempre"

    The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing." (El Presente Continuo con palabras como "siempre" o "constantemente" expresa la idea que algo irritante o un sobresalto a menudo pasa. Note que el significado se parece al Presente Simple, pero con la emoción negativa. Acuérdese de poner las palabras "siempre" o "constantemente" entre "ser" y "verb+ing".)

    Examples:

    She is always coming to class late. (Ella siempre llega tarde a clase)
    He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up. (Él está constantemente hablando. Me gustaría que pudiera callarse)
    I don't like them because they are always complaining. (No me gustan, porque siempre están quejándose)

    REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
    RECUERDE Verbos no contínuos / Verbos mixtos

    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present. (Es importante recordar que los Verbos No continuos no pueden ser usados en ningún tiempo continuo. También, ciertos significados no continuos para Verbos Mixtos no pueden ser usados en tiempo continuo. En vez de usar el Presente Continuo con estos verbos, usted debe usar el Presente Simple.

    Examples:

    She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
    She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct (Le encanta este helado de chocolate)

    ADVERB PLACEMENT. (POSICIÓN DE LOS ADVERBIOS)

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. (Los ejemplos de abajo muestran la colocación para la gramática de adverbios tales como: siempre, solo, nunca, alguna vez, de todos modos, solamente(justo))

    Examples:

    You are still watching TV. (Estás viendo todavía la TV)
    Are you still watching TV? (¿Estás viendo la TV aún?)


    Última edición por Gustavo el Lun Dic 08, 2008 2:00 pm, editado 7 veces
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:42 pm

    Formas de los verbos:

    Before you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs. (Ántes de que comiences la lecciones de las tiempos verbales, es extremadamente importante entender que NO todos los verbos ingleses son iguales. Los verbos ingleses se dividen en tres grupos: verbos normales, verbos no contínuos, y verbos mixtos)

    Group I Normal Verbs. Verbos normales.

    Most verbs are "Normal Verbs." These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses. (La mayoría de los verbos son "verbos normales". Esos verbos consisten usualmente en acciones físicas que puedes ver haciendo a alguien. Estos verbos pueden usarse en todos los tiempos.)

    Normal Verbs
    to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc. (correr, caminar, comer, volar, ir, decir, tocar, etc)

    Examples:

    I eat dinner every day. (Ceno todos los días)
    I am eating dinner now. (Ceno ahora)


    Group II Non-Continuous Verbs. Verbos no contínuos.

    The second group, called "Non-Continuous Verbs," is smaller. These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely used in continuous tenses. They include: (El segundo grupo, llamado verbos no contínuos, es más pequeño. Estos verbos son usualmente cosas que no puedes ver hace a alguien. Estos verbos se usan raramente en tiempo contínuo.)

    Abstract Verbs
    to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist... (ser, querer, costar, parecer, necesitar, preocuparse, contener, deber, existir...)

    Possession Verbs (Verbos posesivos)
    to possess, to own, to belong... (poseer, poseer, pertenecer...)

    Emotion Verbs (Verbos de emoción)
    to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind... (parecer, gustar, odiar, tener aversión, temer, envidiar, importar...)

    Examples:

    He is needing help now. Not Correct
    He needs help now. Correct (Él necesita ayuda ahora)
    He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct
    He wants a drink now. Correct (Quiere una bebida ahora)


    Group III Mixed Verbs

    The third group, called "Mixed Verbs," is the smallest group. These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs." (El tercer grupo, llamado Verbos Mixtos, es el grupo más pequeño. Estos verbos tienen más de un significado. En un sentido, cada significado es un verbo único. Algunos significados se comportan como " Verbos No continuos, " mientras otros significados se comportan como " Verbos Normales. "

    Mixed Verbs
    to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh... (aparecer, sentir, tener, enterarse, mirar, ver, pesar... )

    List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:

    to appear:
    Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb (Donna aparece confusa)
    Donna seems confused. (Donna parece confusa)
    My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb (Mi cantante favorito aparece en el club de jazz esta noche)
    My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight. (Mi cantante favorito da un recital en el club de jazz esta noche. )

    to have:
    I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb. (Tengo un dólar ahora)
    I possess a dollar. (Poseo un dólar)
    I am having fun now. Normal Verb. (Ahora estoy divertido)
    I am experiencing fun now. (Experimento la diversión ahora)

    to hear:
    She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb. (Ella oye la música.)
    She hears the music with her ears. (Ella oye la música con sus oídos.)
    She is hearing voices. Normal Verb. (Ella está oyendo voces)
    She hears something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind. (Ella oye algo que los otros no pueden enterarse. Ella oye voces en su mente. )

    to look:
    Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb. (Nancy parece cansada)
    She seems tired. (Ella parece cansada)
    Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb. (Farah mira los cuadros)
    She is looking with her eyes. (Ella mira con sus ojos)

    to miss:
    John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb (John echa de menos a Sally)
    He is sad because she is not there. (Él está triste porque ella no está aquí)
    Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb. (Debbie echa de menos su programa favorito de TV)
    She is not there to see her favorite program. (Ella no está aquí para ver su programa favorito)

    to see:
    I see her. Non-Continuous Verb. (La veo)
    I see her with my eyes. (La veo con mis ojos)
    I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb. (Veo al médico)
    I am visiting or consulting with a doctor. (Also used with dentist and lawyer.) (Visito o consulto con el médico. También se usa con dentista y abogado)
    I am seeing her. Normal Verb. (La veo)
    I am having a relationship with her. (Tengo una relación con ella)
    He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb (Él ve fantasms por la noche)
    He sees something others cannot see. For example ghosts, aura, a vision of the future, etc. (El ve algo que los otros no pueden ver)

    to smell:
    The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb. (El café huele bien)
    The coffee has a good smell. (El café tiene buen aroma)
    I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb. (Estoy oliendo las flores)
    I am sniffing the flowers to see what their smell is like. (Huelo las flores para ver cómo es su olor)

    to taste:
    The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb. (El café sabe bien)
    The coffee has a good taste. (El café tiene un buen sabor)
    I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb (Estoy saboreando el café)
    I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like. (Estoy probando el pastel para ver a qué sabe)

    to think:
    He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb
    He considers the test to be easy.
    She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb
    She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.

    to weigh:
    The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb
    The table is heavy.
    She is weighing herself. Normal Verb
    She is determining her weight.

    Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:

    to be:
    Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb
    Joe is an American citizen.
    Joe is being very American. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.
    Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.
    Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb
    Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.

    NOTICE: Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.

    to feel:

    The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb
    The massage has a pleasing feeling.
    I don't feel well today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb
    I am a little sick.
    I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb
    I am a little sick.

    NOTICE: The second meaning of "feel" is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between "I don't feel well today" and "I am not feeling well today."


    Última edición por Gustavo el Dom Dic 07, 2008 2:21 pm, editado 6 veces
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:44 pm

    Pasado simple:

    Most Verbs
    Most verbs conjugate by adding -ed like the verb "wait" below.

    Positive form:
    I waited.
    You waited.
    He waited.
    She waited.
    It waited.
    We waited.
    You waited.
    They waited.

    Negative form:
    I did not wait.
    You did not wait.
    He did not wait.
    She did not wait.
    It did not wait.
    We did not wait.
    You did not wait.
    They did not wait.

    Interrogative form:
    Did I wait?
    Did you wait?
    Did he wait?
    Did she wait?
    Did it wait?
    Did we wait?
    Did you wait?
    Did they wait?



    Irregular Verbs
    Many verbs, such as "have," take irregular forms in the Simple Past. Notice that you only use the irregular verbs in statements. In negative forms and questions, "did" indicates Simple Past.

    Positive form:
    I had.
    You had.
    He had.
    She had.
    It had.
    We had.
    You had.
    They had.

    Negative form:
    I did not have.
    You did not have.
    He did not have.
    She did not have.
    It did not have.
    We did not have.
    You did not have.
    They did not have.

    Negative form:
    Did I have?
    Did you have?
    Did he have?
    Did she have?
    Did it have?
    Did we have?
    Did you have?
    Did they have?


    To Be
    The verb "be" is also irregular in the Simple Past. Unlike other irregular verbs, there are two Simple Past forms: "was" and "were." It also has different question forms and negative forms. Always remember that you DO NOT use "did" with the verb "be" in the Simple Past.

    Positive form:
    I was.
    You were.
    He was.
    She was.
    It was.
    We were.
    You were.
    They were.

    Negative form:
    I was not.
    You were not.
    He was not.
    She was not.
    It was not.
    We were not.
    You were not.
    They were not.

    Interrogative form:
    Was I?
    Were you?
    Was he?
    Was she?
    Was it?
    Were we?
    Were you?
    Were they?


    Modal Verbs
    Modal verbs behave very strangely in the Simple Past. The most important verb to remember is "must." Notice how it becomes "had to" in the Simple Past.

    "Must" becomes "had to":

    I must call my wife now.
    I had to call my wife yesterday.

    USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

    Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

    Examples:

    I saw a movie yesterday.
    I didn't see a play yesterday.
    Last year, I traveled to Japan.
    Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
    Did you have dinner last night?
    She washed her car.
    He didn't wash his car.


    USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

    We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

    Examples:

    I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
    He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
    Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?


    USE 3 Duration in Past

    The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

    Examples:

    I lived in Brazil for two years.
    Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
    They sat at the beach all day.
    They did not stay at the party the entire time.
    We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
    A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

    USE 4 Habits in the Past

    The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

    Examples:

    I studied French when I was a child.
    He played the violin.
    He didn't play the piano.
    Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
    She worked at the movie theater after school.
    They never went to school, they always skipped class.


    USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

    The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."

    Examples:

    She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
    He didn't like tomatoes before.
    Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
    People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

    IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First
    Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.

    Examples:

    When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
    She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

    When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.

    Example:

    I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.


    ADVERB PLACEMENT
    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You just called Debbie.
    Did you just call Debbie?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:45 pm

    PASADO CONTÍNUO:

    Positive form:
    I was singing.
    You were singing.
    He was singing.
    She was singing.
    It was singing.
    We were singing.
    You were singing.
    They were singing.

    Negative form:
    I was not singing.
    You were not singing.
    He was not singing.
    She was not singing.
    It was not singing.
    We were not singing.
    You were not singing.
    They were not singing.

    Interrogative form:
    Was I singing?
    Were you singing?
    Was he singing?
    Was she singing?
    Was it singing?
    Were we singing?
    Were you singing?
    Were they singing?



    USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past

    Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

    Examples:

    I was watching TV when she called.
    When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
    While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
    What were you doing when the earthquake started?
    I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.
    You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.
    While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
    Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.
    While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
    A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
    B: I was snowboarding.


    USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption

    In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

    Examples:

    Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
    At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
    Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

    IMPORTANT
    In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

    Examples:

    Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
    I started eating at 6 PM.
    Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
    I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.


    USE 3 Parallel Actions

    When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

    Examples:

    I was studying while he was making dinner.
    While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
    Were you listening while he was talking?
    I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
    What were you doing while you were waiting?
    Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.
    They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

    USE 4 Atmosphere

    In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.

    Example:

    When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.


    USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

    The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

    Examples:

    She was always coming to class late.
    He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
    I didn't like them because they were always complaining.


    While vs. When

    Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.

    Examples:

    I was studying when she called.
    While I was studying, she called.


    REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.

    Examples:

    Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct
    Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You were just studying when she called.
    Were you just studying when she called?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:47 pm

    PRESENTE PERFECTO:

    Positive form:

    I have traveled.
    You have traveled.
    He has traveled.
    She has traveled.
    It has traveled.
    We have traveled.
    You have traveled.
    They have traveled.

    Negative form:

    I have not traveled.
    You have not traveled.
    He has not traveled.
    She has not traveled.
    It has not traveled.
    We have not traveled.
    You have not traveled.
    They have not traveled.

    Interrogative form:

    Have I traveled?
    Have you traveled?
    Has he traveled?
    Has she traveled?
    Has it traveled?
    Have we traveled?
    Have you traveled?
    Have they traveled?

    USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

    We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

    Examples:

    I have seen that movie twenty times.
    I think I have met him once before.
    There have been many earthquakes in California.
    People have traveled to the Moon.
    People have not traveled to Mars.
    Have you read the book yet?
    Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
    A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
    How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?


    The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

    TOPIC 1 Experience
    You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

    Examples:

    I have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
    I have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
    I have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
    I think I have seen that movie before.
    He has never traveled by train.
    Joan has studied two foreign languages.
    A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.


    TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
    We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

    Examples:

    You have grown since the last time I saw you.
    The government has become more interested in arts education.
    Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
    My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.


    TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
    We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

    Examples:

    Man has walked on the Moon.
    Our son has learned how to read.
    Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
    Scientists have split the atom.


    TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
    We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.

    Examples:

    James has not finished his homework yet.
    Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
    Bill has still not arrived.
    The rain hasn't stopped.


    TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
    We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.

    Examples:

    The army has attacked that city five times.
    I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
    We have had many major problems while working on this project.
    She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

    Time Expressions with Present Perfect
    When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

    Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

    Examples:

    Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
    I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
    They have had three tests in the last week.
    She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
    My car has broken down three times this week.

    NOTICE
    "Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.

    Examples:

    I went to Mexico last year.
    I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
    I have been to Mexico in the last year.
    I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.


    USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

    Examples:

    I have had a cold for two weeks.
    She has been in England for six months.
    Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

    Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

    ADVERB PLACEMENT
    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You have only seen that movie one time.
    Have you only seen that movie one time?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:48 pm

    PRESENTE CONTÍNUO PERFECTO:

    Positive form:
    I have been sleeping.
    You have been sleeping.
    He has been sleeping.
    She has been sleeping.
    It has been sleeping.
    We have been sleeping.
    You have been sleeping.
    They have been sleeping.

    Negative form:
    I have not been sleeping.
    You have not been sleeping.
    He has not been sleeping.
    She has not been sleeping.
    It has not been sleeping.
    We have not been sleeping.
    You have not been sleeping.
    They have not been sleeping.

    Interrogative form:
    Have I been sleeping?
    Have you been sleeping?
    Has he been sleeping?
    Has she been sleeping?
    Has it been sleeping?
    Have we been sleeping?
    Have you been sleeping?
    Have they been sleeping?


    USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

    We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

    Examples:

    They have been talking for the last hour.
    She has been working at that company for three years.
    What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
    James has been teaching at the university since June.
    We have been waiting here for over two hours!
    Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?



    USE 2 Recently, Lately

    You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

    Examples:

    Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
    She has been watching too much television lately.
    Have you been exercising lately?
    Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
    Lisa has not been practicing her English.
    What have you been doing?

    IMPORTANT
    Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

    REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs
    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.

    Examples:

    Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
    Sam has had his car for two years. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT
    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You have only been waiting here for one hour.
    Have you only been waiting here for one hour?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:49 pm

    PASADO PERFECTO:

    Positive from:
    I had finished.
    You had finished.
    He had finished.
    She had finished.
    It had finished.
    We had finished.
    You had finished.
    They had finished.

    Negative form:
    I had not finished.
    You had not finished.
    He had not finished.
    She had not finished.
    It had not finished.
    We had not finished.
    You had not finished.
    They had not finished.

    Interrogative form:
    Had I finished?
    Had you finished?
    Had he finished?
    Had she finished?
    Had it finished?
    Had we finished?
    Had you finished?
    Had they finished?




    USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

    The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

    Examples:

    I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
    I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
    Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
    Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
    She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
    Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
    We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
    A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


    USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

    Examples:

    We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
    By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
    They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

    Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


    IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

    Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

    Example:

    She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


    MOREOVER
    If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

    Examples:

    She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
    She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


    HOWEVER
    If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

    Examples:

    She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
    She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
    Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:50 pm

    PASADO PERFECTO CONTÍNUO:

    Positive form:
    I had been listening.
    You had been listening.
    He had been listening.
    She had been listening.
    It had been listening.
    We had been listening.
    You had been listening.
    They had been listening.

    Negative form:
    I had not been listening.
    You had not been listening.
    He had not been listening.
    She had not been listening.
    It had not been listening.
    We had not been listening.
    You had not been listening.
    They had not been listening.

    Interrogative form:
    Had I been listening?
    Had you been listening?
    Had he been listening?
    Had she been listening?
    Had it been listening?
    Had we been listening?
    Had you been listening?
    Had they been listening?

    [had been + present participle]

    Examples:

    You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
    Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
    You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:52 pm

    PASADO PERFECTO:

    Positive from:
    I had finished.
    You had finished.
    He had finished.
    She had finished.
    It had finished.
    We had finished.
    You had finished.
    They had finished.

    Negative form:
    I had not finished.
    You had not finished.
    He had not finished.
    She had not finished.
    It had not finished.
    We had not finished.
    You had not finished.
    They had not finished.

    Interrogative form:
    Had I finished?
    Had you finished?
    Had he finished?
    Had she finished?
    Had it finished?
    Had we finished?
    Had you finished?
    Had they finished?

    USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

    The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

    Examples:

    I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
    I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
    Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
    Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
    She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
    Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
    We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
    A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


    USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

    Examples:

    We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
    By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
    They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

    Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


    IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

    Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

    Example:

    She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


    MOREOVER
    If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

    Examples:

    She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
    She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


    HOWEVER
    If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

    Examples:

    She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
    She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
    Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:53 pm

    PASADO PERFECTO CONTÍNUO:

    Positive form:
    I had been listening.
    You had been listening.
    He had been listening.
    She had been listening.
    It had been listening.
    We had been listening.
    You had been listening.
    They had been listening.

    Negative form:
    I had not been listening.
    You had not been listening.
    He had not been listening.
    She had not been listening.
    It had not been listening.
    We had not been listening.
    You had not been listening.
    They had not been listening.

    Interrogative form:
    Had I been listening?
    Had you been listening?
    Had he been listening?
    Had she been listening?
    Had it been listening?
    Had we been listening?
    Had you been listening?
    Had they been listening?

    [had been + present participle]

    Examples:

    You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
    Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
    You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
    USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past

    We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.

    Examples:

    They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
    She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
    How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
    Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
    James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
    A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
    B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.


    USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past

    Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

    Examples:

    Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
    Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
    Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.


    Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous

    If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

    Examples:

    He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment.
    He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

    REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.

    Examples:

    The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
    The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
    Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:55 pm

    FUTURO SIMPLE:

    Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.


    FORM Will

    [will + verb]

    Positive form:
    I will help.
    You will help.
    He will help.
    She will help.
    It will help.
    We will help.
    You will help.
    They will help.

    Negative form:
    I will not help.
    You will not help.
    He will not help.
    She will not help.
    It will not help.
    We will not help.
    You will not help.
    They will not help.

    Interrogative form:
    Will I help?
    Will you help?
    Will he help?
    Will she help?
    Will it help?
    Will we help?
    Will you help?
    Will they help?

    Examples:

    You will help him later.
    Will you help him later?
    You will not help him later.


    FORM Be Going To

    [am/is/are + going to + verb]

    Positive form:
    I am going to leave.
    You are going to leave.
    He is going to leave.
    She is going to leave.
    It is going to leave.
    We are going to leave.
    You are going to leave.
    They are going to leave.

    Negative form:
    I am not going to leave.
    You are not going to leave.
    He is not going to leave.
    She is not going to leave.
    It is not going to leave.
    We are not going to leave.
    You are not going to leave.
    They are not going to leave.

    Interrogative form:
    Am I going to leave?
    Are you going to leave?
    Is he going to leave?
    Is she going to leave?
    Is it going to leave?
    Are we going to leave?
    Are you going to leave?
    Are they going to leave?

    Examples:

    You are going to meet Jane tonight.
    Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
    You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

    USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action

    "Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

    Examples:

    I will send you the information when I get it.
    I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
    Will you help me move this heavy table?
    Will you make dinner?
    I will not do your homework for you.
    I won't do all the housework myself!
    A: I'm really hungry.
    B: I'll make some sandwiches.
    A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
    B: I'll get you some coffee.
    A: The phone is ringing.
    B: I'll get it.


    USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

    "Will" is usually used in promises.

    Examples:

    I will call you when I arrive.
    If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
    I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
    Don't worry, I'll be careful.
    I won't tell anyone your secret.

    USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

    "Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.

    Examples:

    He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
    She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
    A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
    B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
    I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
    Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
    They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
    Who are you going to invite to the party?
    A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
    B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.


    USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

    Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.

    Examples:

    The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
    The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
    John Smith will be the next President.
    John Smith is going to be the next President.
    The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
    The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

    IMPORTANT
    In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.

    No Future in Time Clauses
    Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.

    Examples:

    When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
    When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You will never help him.
    Will you ever help him?
    You are never going to meet Jane.
    Are you ever going to meet Jane?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:56 pm

    FUTURO CONTÍNUO:

    Future Continuous with "Will"

    [will be + present participle]

    Positive form:
    I will be waiting.
    You will be waiting.
    He will be waiting.
    She will be waiting.
    It will be waiting.
    We will be waiting.
    You will be waiting.
    They will be waiting.

    Negative form:
    I will not be waiting.
    You will not be waiting.
    He will not be waiting.
    She will not be waiting.
    It will not be waiting.
    We will not be waiting.
    You will not be waiting.
    They will not be waiting.

    Interrogative form:
    Will I be waiting?
    Will you be waiting?
    Will he be waiting?
    Will she be waiting?
    Will it be waiting?
    Will we be waiting?
    Will you be waiting?
    Will they be waiting?

    Examples:

    You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
    Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
    You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.


    Future Continuous with "Be Going To "

    [am/is/are + going to be + present participle]

    Positive form:
    I am going to be waiting.
    You are going to be waiting.
    He is going to be waiting.
    She is going to be waiting.
    It is going to be waiting.
    We are going to be waiting.
    You are going to be waiting.
    They are going to be waiting.

    Negative form:
    I am not going to be waiting.
    You are not going to be waiting.
    He is not going to be waiting.
    She is not going to be waiting.
    It is not going to be waiting.
    We are not going to be waiting.
    You are not going to be waiting.
    They are not going to be waiting.

    Interrogative form:
    Am I going to be waiting?
    Are you going to be waiting?
    Is he going to be waiting?
    Is she going to be waiting?
    Is it going to be waiting?
    Are we going to be waiting?
    Are you going to be waiting?
    Are they going to be waiting?

    Examples:

    You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
    Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
    You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

    USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future

    Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

    Examples:

    I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
    I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
    I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
    He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

    Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

    USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future

    In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.

    Examples:

    Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I will be in the process of eating dinner.
    At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
    We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

    REMEMBER
    In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.

    Examples:

    Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
    I am going to start eating at 6 PM.
    Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.


    USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future

    When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.

    Examples:

    I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
    Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
    While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.

    Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while." (See Explanation Below)


    USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future

    In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.

    Example:

    When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

    REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

    Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.

    Examples:

    While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct
    While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

    AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.

    Examples:

    Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct
    Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
    Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?
    You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
    Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 6:58 pm

    FUTURO PERFECTO:

    Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

    FORM Future Perfect with "Will"

    [will have + past participle]

    Positive form:
    I will have stopped.
    You will have stopped.
    He will have stopped.
    She will have stopped.
    It will have stopped.
    We will have stopped.
    You will have stopped.
    They will have stopped.

    Negative form:
    I will not have stopped.
    You will not have stopped.
    He will not have stopped.
    She will not have stopped.
    It will not have stopped.
    We will not have stopped.
    You will not have stopped.
    They will not have stopped.

    Interrogative form:
    Will I have stopped?
    Will you have stopped?
    Will he have stopped?
    Will she have stopped?
    Will it have stopped?
    Will we have stopped?
    Will you have stopped?
    Will they have stopped?

    Examples:

    You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
    Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
    You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.


    FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"

    [am/is/are + going to have + past participle]

    Positive form:
    I am going to have stopped.
    You are going to have stopped.
    He is going to have stopped.
    She is going to have stopped.
    It is going to have stopped.
    We are going to have stopped.
    You are going to have stopped.
    They are going to have stopped.

    Negative form:
    I am not going to have stopped.
    You are not going to have stopped.
    He is not going to have stopped.
    She is not going to have stopped.
    It is not going to have stopped.
    We are not going to have stopped.
    You are not going to have stopped.
    They are not going to have stopped.

    Interrogative form:
    Am I going to have stopped?
    Are you going to have stopped?
    Is he going to have stopped?
    Is she going to have stopped?
    Is it going to have stopped?
    Are we going to have stopped?
    Are you going to have stopped?
    Are they going to have stopped?

    Examples:

    You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
    Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
    You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.


    NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.

    USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future

    The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.

    Examples:

    By next November, I will have received my promotion.
    By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
    I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
    Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
    Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
    By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
    How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?

    Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.


    USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)

    With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.

    Examples:

    I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
    By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.

    Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


    REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
    Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.

    Examples:

    I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct
    I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You will only have learned a few words.
    Will you only have learned a few words?
    You are only going to have learned a few words.
    Are you only going to have learned a few words?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:00 pm

    FUTURO PERFECTO CONTÍNUO:

    Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

    Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"

    [will have been + present participle]

    Positive form:
    I will have been sleeping.
    You will have been sleeping.
    He will have been sleeping.
    She will have been sleeping.
    It will have been sleeping.
    We will have been sleeping.
    You will have been sleeping.
    They will have been sleeping.

    Negative form:
    I will not have been sleeping.
    You will not have been sleeping.
    He will not have been sleeping.
    She will not have been sleeping.
    It will not have been sleeping.
    We will not have been sleeping.
    You will not have been sleeping.
    They will not have been sleeping.

    Interrogative form:
    Will I have been sleeping?
    Will you have been sleeping?
    Will he have been sleeping?
    Will she have been sleeping?
    Will it have been sleeping?
    Will we have been sleeping?
    Will you have been sleeping?
    Will they have been sleeping?

    Examples:

    You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
    Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
    You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.


    Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"

    [am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

    Positive form:
    I am going to have been sleeping.
    You are going to have been sleeping.
    He is going to have been sleeping.
    She is going to have been sleeping.
    It is going to have been sleeping.
    We are going to have been sleeping.
    You are going to have been sleeping.
    They are going to have been sleeping.

    Negative form:
    I am not going to have been sleeping.
    You are not going to have been sleeping.
    He is not going to have been sleeping.
    She is not going to have been sleeping.
    It is not going to have been sleeping.
    We are not going to have been sleeping.
    You are not going to have been sleeping.
    They are not going to have been sleeping.

    Interrogative form:
    Am I going to have been sleeping?
    Are you going to have been sleeping?
    Is he going to have been sleeping?
    Is she going to have been sleeping?
    Is it going to have been sleeping?
    Are we going to have been sleeping?
    Are you going to have been sleeping?
    Are they going to have been sleeping?

    Examples:

    You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
    Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
    You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.


    NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

    USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future

    We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.

    Examples:

    They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
    She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
    James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
    How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
    We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
    A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
    B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

    Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.


    USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future

    Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.

    Examples:

    Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
    Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.


    Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous

    If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

    Examples:

    He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
    He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.

    REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

    Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.

    Examples:

    You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
    You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct


    AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

    It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .

    Examples:

    Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct
    Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct


    ADVERB PLACEMENT

    The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

    Examples:

    You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
    Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
    You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
    Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:02 pm

    FUTURO EN EL PASADO:

    Like Simple Future, Future in the Past has two different forms in English: "would" and "was going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two different meanings.

    FORM Would

    [would + VERB]

    Examples:

    I knew you would help him.
    I knew you would not help him.


    FORM Was/Were Going To

    [was/were + going to + VERB]

    Examples:

    I knew you were going to go to the party.
    I knew you were not going to go to the party.



    USE 1 Future in Past

    Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.

    Examples:

    I told you he was going to come to the party. plan
    I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action
    Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan
    I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction
    He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

    REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

    Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past.

    Examples:

    I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct
    I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:02 pm

    VERBOS MODALES:

    What are Modal Verbs?

    Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:

    1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.

    Examples:

    He can speak Chinese.
    She should be here by 9:00.


    2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.

    Examples:

    He should not be late.
    They might not come to the party.


    3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.

    Examples:

    He will can go with us. Not Correct
    She musted study very hard. Not Correct


    Common Modal Verbs

    Can- Could- May- Might- Must- Ought to- Shall- Should- Will- Would
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:04 pm

    CAN / COULD

    Can

    "Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.

    Examples:

    I can ride a horse. ability
    We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity
    She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission
    Can you hand me the stapler? request
    Any child can grow up to be president. possibility

    Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "can" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Can: General ability

    Present:
    I can speak Chinese.
    I can't speak Swahili.

    Past: SHIFT TO "COULD"
    I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.
    I couldn't speak Swahili.

    Future: SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"
    I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.
    I won't be able to speak Swahili.

    You can also use "be able to".


    2- Can: Ability during a specific event

    Present:
    With a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars.
    Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can't pick up something that heavy.

    Past: SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"
    With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he was able to lift the car off the child's leg.
    Even the weight lifter, couldn't lift the car off the child's leg.

    Future: SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"
    With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he will be able to lift the car.
    Even three men working together won't be able to lift the car.

    You can also use "be able to".

    3- Can: Opportunity

    Present:
    I have some free time. I can help her now.
    I don't have any time. I can't help her now.

    Past: SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"
    I had some free time yesterday. I was able to help her at that time.
    I didn't have time yesterday. I wasn't able to help her at that time.

    Future:
    I'll have some free time tomorrow. I can help her then.
    I won't have any time later. I can't help her then.

    You can also use "be able to".


    4- Can: Permission

    Present:
    I can drive Susan's car when she is out of town.
    I can't drive Susan's car when she is out of town.

    Past: SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO "
    I was allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week.
    I wasn't allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week.

    Future:
    I can drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week.
    I can't drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week.

    You can also use "may".

    5- Can: Request

    Can I have a glass of water?
    Can you give me a lift to school?
    Can't I have a glass of water?
    Can't you give me a lift to school?

    Requests usually refer to the near future.

    You can also use "could" or "may".

    6- Can: Possibility, impossibility

    Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.
    Learning a language can be a real challenge.
    It can't cost more than a dollar or two.
    You can't be 45! I thought you were about 18 years old.

    This use is usually a generalization or a supposition.

    You can also use "could".



    Could



    "Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of "can."

    Examples:

    Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility
    Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability
    You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion
    Could I use your computer to email my boss? request
    We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. conditional

    Using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "could" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Could: Possibility

    Present:
    John could be the one who stole the money.
    Mary couldn't be the one who stole the money.

    Past:
    John could have been the one who stole the money.
    Mary couldn't have been the one who stole the money.

    Future:
    John could go to jail for stealing the money.
    Mary couldn't possibly go to jail for the crime.

    You can also use "might" or "may".


    2- Could: Conditional of can

    Present:
    If I had more time, I could travel around the world.
    Even if I had more time, I couldn't travel around the world.

    Past:
    If I had had more time, I could have traveled around the world.
    Even if I had had more time, I couldn't have traveled around the world.

    Future:
    If I had more time this winter, I could travel around the world.
    Even if I had more time this winter, I couldn't travel around the world.

    3- Could: Suggestion

    NO PRESENT FORM
    NO NEGATIVE FORMS

    Past:
    You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii.

    Future:
    You could spend your vacation in Hawaii.

    4- Could: Past ability

    I could run ten miles in my twenties.
    I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.
    I couldn't run more than a mile in my twenties.
    I couldn't speak Swahili.

    "Could" cannot be used in positive sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability.

    Yesterday, I could lift the couch by myself. Not Correct

    "Could" can be used in negative sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability.

    Yesterday, I couldn't lift the couch by myself. Correct

    You can also use "be able to".

    5- Could: Polite request

    Could I have something to drink?
    Could I borrow your stapler?
    Couldn't he come with us?
    Couldn't you help me with this for just a second?

    Requests usually refer to the near future.

    You can also use "can", "may" or "might".

    REMEMBER: "Could not" vs. "Might not"
    "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens.

    Examples:

    Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
    Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:05 pm

    MUST: Obligación

    Must



    "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit.

    Examples:

    This must be the right address! certainty
    Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity
    You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation
    Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition


    Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Must: Certainty

    Present:
    That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.
    That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair.

    Past:
    That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street.
    That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere.

    NO FUTURE FORM

    You can also use "have to".

    2- Must not: Prohibition

    You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles.
    You must not forget to take your malaria medication while you are in the tropics.

    Prohibition usually refer to the near future.

    3- Must: Strong recommendation
    (Americans prefer the form "should.")

    Present:
    You must take some time off and get some rest.
    You mustn't drink so much. It's not good for your health.

    Past: SHIFT TO "SHOULD"
    You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest.
    You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident.

    Future: SHIFT TO "SHOULD"
    You should take some time off next week to get some rest.
    You shouldn't drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver.

    You can also use "should".

    4- Must: Necessity
    (Americans prefer the form "have to.")

    Present:
    You must have a permit to enter the national park.
    Present negative SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park.

    Past: SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    We had to have a permit to enter the park.
    We didn't have to get a permit to enter the national park.

    Future:
    We must get a permit to enter the park next week.
    Future negative: SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park.

    You can also use "have to".


    REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to"
    "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something.

    Examples:

    You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
    You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:07 pm

    May / Might

    May

    "May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common.

    Examples:

    Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility
    Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. give permission
    May I use your bathroom? request permission


    Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts.

    1- May: Possibility

    Present:
    Jack may be upset. I can't really tell if he is annoyed or tired.
    Jack may not be upset. Perhaps he is tired.

    Past:
    Jack may have been upset. I couldn't really tell if he was annoyed or tired.
    Jack may not have been upset. Perhaps he was tired.

    Future:
    Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth.
    Jack may not get upset, even if you tell him the truth.

    You can also use "might ".

    2- May: Give permission

    Present:
    You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner.
    You may not leave the table. You're not finished with your dinner yet.

    Past: SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO"
    You were allowed to leave the table after you finished your dinner.
    You were not allowed to leave the table because you hadn't finished your dinner.

    Future:
    You may leave the table when you finish your dinner.
    You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner.

    You can also use "can".

    3- May: Request permission

    May I borrow your eraser?
    May I make a phone call?

    Requests usually refer to the near future.

    NO NEGATIVE FORMS

    You can also use "can" or "might".



    Might



    "Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.

    Examples:

    Your purse might be in the living room. possibility
    If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. conditional
    You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. suggestion
    Might I borrow your pen? request

    Using "Might" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Might: Possibility

    Present:
    She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems.
    She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home.

    Past:
    She might have taken the bus. I'm not sure how she got to work.
    She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home.

    Future:
    She might take the bus to get home. I don't think Bill will be able to give her a ride.
    She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Bill.

    You can also use "could" or "may".

    2- Might: Conditional of may

    Present:
    If I entered the contest, I might actually win.
    Even if I entered the contest, I might not win.

    Past:
    If I had entered the contest, I might actually have won.
    Even if I had entered the contest, I might not have won.

    Future:
    If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might actually win. Unfortunately, I can't enter it.
    Even if I entered the contest tomorrow, I might not win.

    3- Might: Suggestion

    NO PRESENT FORM

    Past:
    You might have tried the cheese cake.

    Future:
    You might try the cheesecake.
    You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It's very calorific.

    You can also use "could".

    4- Might: Request
    (British form)

    Might I have something to drink?
    Might I borrow the stapler?

    Requests usually refer to the near future.
    NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON
    You can also use "could", "may" or "can".

    REMEMBER: "Might not" vs. "Could not"
    "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen.

    Examples:

    Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
    Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:08 pm

    Have to / Have got to

    Have To

    "Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.

    Examples:

    This answer has to be correct. certainty
    The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity
    They have to leave early. obligation


    Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future

    "Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Have to: Certainty

    Present:
    That has to be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.
    Present negative: SHIFT TO "MUST"
    That must not be Jerry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair.

    Past:
    That has to have been the right restaurant. There were no other restaurants on the street.
    Past negative: SHIFT TO "MUST"
    That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere.

    Future: NONE

    You can also use "must" or "have got to".


    2- Have to: Necessity

    Present:
    She has to read four books for this literature class.
    She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath." It's optional reading for extra credit.

    Past:
    She had to finish the first book before the midterm.
    She didn't have to write a critique of "The Scarlet Letter." She had to give a presentation to her class.

    Future:
    She will have to finish the other books before the final exam.
    She won't have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only required course.

    You can also use "must".

    REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not"
    "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something.

    Examples:

    You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
    You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.



    Have Got To



    "Have got to" is used to express necessity and obligation.

    Examples:

    Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. necessity
    I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. obligation

    Using "Have Got to" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have got to" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Have got to: Necessity

    Present:
    People have got to be on time if they want to get a seat in the crowded theater.
    Present negative: SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    People don't have to be there on time to get a seat.

    Past: SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    You had to be on time if you wanted to get a seat in the crowded theater.
    You didn't have to be there on time to get a seat.

    Future:
    You have got to be there on time tonight if you want to get a seat in the crowded theater.
    Future negative: SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"
    You won't have to be there on time to get a seat.

    You can also use "have to" or "must".

    2- Haven't got to: Future obligation

    Haven't you got to be there by 7:00?
    Haven't you got to finish that project today?

    "Haven't got to" is primarily used to ask about future obligations. It can be used in statements, but this is less common.

    You can also use "don't you
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:10 pm

    Should / Ought to


    Should



    "Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.

    Examples:

    When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation
    You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
    I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
    By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation


    Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Should: Recommendation, advisability

    Present:
    People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods.
    Sarah shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for her health.

    Past:
    Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. That might have prevented his heart attack.
    Sarah shouldn't have smoked so much. That's what caused her health problems.

    Future:
    You really should start eating better.
    Sarah shouldn't smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house.

    You can also use "ought to".

    2- Should: Obligation

    I should be at work before 9:00.
    We should return the video before the video rental store closes.

    "Should" can also express something between recommendation and obligation. "Be supposed to" expresses a similar idea and can easily be used in the past or in negative forms.

    NO NEGATIVE FORMS

    You can also use "be supposed to".

    3- Should: Expectation

    Present:
    Susan should be in New York by now.
    Susan shouldn't be in New York yet.

    Past:
    Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let's call her and see what she is up to.
    Susan shouldn't have arrived in New York until yesterday.

    Future:
    Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday.
    Susan shouldn't arrive in New York until next week.

    You can also use "ought to" or "be supposed to".



    Ought To



    "Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not."

    Examples:

    You ought to stop smoking. recommendation
    Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it.
    This stock ought to increase in value. probability
    Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to")

    Using "Ought to" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "ought to" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Ought to: Recommendation, advice

    Present:
    Margaret ought to exercise more.
    Margaret ought not exercise too much. It might cause injury.

    Past:
    Margaret ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon.
    Margaret ought not have run the marathon. She wasn't in good shape.

    Future:
    Margaret ought to come to the fitness center with us tonight.
    Margaret ought not stay at home in front of the TV. She should go to the fitness center with us.

    You can also use "should".

    2- Ought to: Assumption, expectation, probability.

    Present:
    She ought to have the package by now.

    Past:
    She ought to have received the package yesterday.

    Future:
    She ought to receive the package tonight.

    "Ought not" is used primarily to express negative recommendations. (See above.)

    You can also use "should".

    Notice "Ought not"
    Remember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. Instead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer "should not."

    Examples:

    You ought not smoke so much.
    She ought not take such risks while skiing.
    They ought not carry so much cash while traveling
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:12 pm

    Had better

    Had Better

    "Had better" is most commonly used to make recommendations. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people.

    Examples:

    You had better take your umbrella with you today. recommendation
    That bus had better get here soon! desperate hope
    You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future! warning


    Using "Had Better" in Present, Past, and Future

    Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "had better" behaves in different contexts.

    1- Had better: Recommendation

    Present: SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO"
    People should unplug toasters before they clean them.
    People shouldn't clean toasters without unplugging them first.

    Past: SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE"
    You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it.
    You shouldn't have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first.

    Future:
    You had better unplug the toaster before you try to clean it.
    You had better not clean the toaster until you unplug it.

    2- Had better: Desperate hope, warning.
    The movie had better end soon.
    They had better be here before we start dinner.
    They had better not be late.
    They had better not forget Tom's birthday gift.

    Desperate hopes and warnings usually refer to the near future.

    "Had better" is often simply pronounced as "better" in spoken English
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:13 pm

    Will / Shall / Would

    Will


    "Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. For more information on using "will" and associated exercises, visit the Simple Future section of our Verb Tense Tutorial.

    Examples:

    I promise that I will write you every single day. promise
    I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action
    He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction

    1- Will: Future action, prediction

    The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the New York office.
    Fred will be there by 8:00.
    The marketing director will not be replaced after all.
    Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation

    2- Will: Volunteering, promising

    I will take care of everything for you.
    I will make the travel arrangements. There's no need to worry.
    I will never forget you.
    I will never give up the fight for freedom.



    Shall



    "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language.

    Examples:

    Shall I help you? suggestion
    I shall never forget where I came from. promise
    He shall become our next king. predestination
    I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability

    1- Shall: Future action
    (British form)

    I shall be replaced by someone from the New York office.
    I shall be there by 8:00.
    I shall not be replaced after all.
    I shall not be there. I have a previous obligation.

    You can also use "will".

    2- Shall: Suggestions

    Shall we begin dinner?
    Shall we move into the living room?

    You can also use "should".

    3- Shall: Volunteering, promising.
    (British form)

    I shall take care of everything for you.
    I shall make the travel arrangements. There's no need to worry.
    I shall never forget you.
    I shall never give up the fight for freedom.

    You can also use "will".

    4- Shall: Inevitability
    (British form)

    Man shall explore the distant regions of the universe.
    We shall overcome oppression.
    Man shall never give up the exploration of the universe.
    He shall not be held back.


    Would



    "Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." Additionally, "would" can indicate repetition in the past. Examples:

    If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional
    I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of "will"
    When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition

    1- Would: Conditional

    Present:
    If I were president, I would cut the cost of education.
    If I were president, I would not raise taxes.

    Past:
    If I had been president, I would have cut the cost of education.
    If I had been president, I would not have raised taxes.

    Future:
    If I were elected president next year, I would cut the cost of education.
    If I were president, I would not sign the tax increase next week.

    2- Would: Past of "will"

    I said I would help you.
    He told me he would be here before 8:00.
    I said I wouldn't help you.
    He told me he would not be here before 8:00.

    3- Would: Repetition in past

    When I was a kid, I would always go to the beach.
    When he was young, he would always do his homework.
    When I was a kid, I wouldn't go into the water by myself.
    When he got older, he would never do his homework.

    You can also use "used to".
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:15 pm

    VERBOS IRREGULARES::

    Irregular verbs
    por Compilator el Dom Jul 27, 2008 10:09 am

    Irregular Verbs

    Alternate forms are separated by /. The first form listed is the most commonly used.
    Forms which are primarily used in British English are in italics.



    A
    arise - arose - arisen
    awake - awakened / awoke - awakened / awoken

    B
    backslide backslid backslidden / backslid
    be was, were been
    bear bore born / borne
    beat beat beaten / beat
    become became become
    begin began begun
    bend bent bent
    bet bet / betted [?] bet / betted [?]
    bid (farewell) bid / bade bidden
    bid (offer amount) bid bid
    bind bound bound
    bite bit bitten
    bleed bled bled
    blow blew blown
    break broke broken
    breed bred bred
    bring brought brought
    broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
    browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat
    build built built
    burn burned / burnt [?] burned / burnt [?]
    burst burst burst
    bust busted / bust busted / bust
    buy bought bought

    C
    cast cast cast
    catch caught caught
    choose chose chosen
    cling clung clung
    clothe clothed / clad [?] clothed / clad [?]
    come came come
    cost cost cost
    creep crept crept
    crossbreed crossbred crossbred
    cut cut cut



    D
    daydream daydreamed / daydreamt [?] daydreamed / daydreamt [?]
    deal dealt dealt
    dig dug dug
    disprove disproved disproved / disproven
    dive (jump head-first) dove / dived dived
    dive (scuba diving) dived / dove dived
    do did done
    draw drew drawn
    dream dreamed / dreamt [?] dreamed / dreamt [?]
    drink drank drunk
    drive drove driven
    dwell dwelt / dwelled [?] dwelt / dwelled [?]

    E
    eat ate eaten

    F
    fall fell fallen
    feed fed fed
    feel felt felt
    fight fought fought
    find found found
    fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit [?] fitted / fit [?]
    fit (be right size) fit / fitted [?] fit / fitted [?]
    flee fled fled
    fling flung flung
    fly flew flown
    forbid forbade forbidden
    forecast forecast forecast
    forego (also forgo) forewent foregone
    foresee foresaw foreseen
    foretell foretold foretold
    forget forgot forgotten / forgot [?]
    forgive forgave forgiven
    forsake forsook forsaken
    freeze froze frozen
    frostbite frostbit frostbitten

    G
    get got gotten / got [?]
    give gave given
    go went gone
    grind ground ground
    grow grew grown



    H
    hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
    handwrite handwrote handwritten
    hang hung hung
    have had had
    hear heard heard
    hew hewed hewn / hewed
    hide hid hidden
    hit hit hit
    hold held held
    hurt hurt hurt

    I
    inbreed inbred inbred
    inlay inlaid inlaid
    input input / inputted input / inputted
    interbreed interbred interbred
    interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved
    interwind interwound interwound

    J
    jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built

    K
    keep kept kept
    kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
    knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
    know knew known

    L
    lay laid laid
    lead led led
    lean leaned / leant [?] leaned / leant [?]
    leap leaped / leapt [?] leaped / leapt [?]
    learn learned / learnt [?] learned / learnt [?]
    leave left left
    lend lent lent
    let let let
    lie lay lain
    lie (not tell truth) REGULAR lied lied
    light lit / lighted lit / lighted
    lip-read lip-read lip-read
    lose lost lost



    M
    make made made
    mean meant meant
    meet met met
    miscast miscast miscast
    misdeal misdealt misdealt
    misdo misdid misdone
    mishear misheard misheard
    mislay mislaid mislaid
    mislead misled misled
    mislearn mislearned / mislearnt [?] mislearned / mislearnt [?]
    misread misread misread
    misset misset misset
    misspeak misspoke misspoken
    misspell misspelled / misspelt [?] misspelled / misspelt [?]
    misspend misspent misspent
    mistake mistook mistaken
    misteach mistaught mistaught
    misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
    miswrite miswrote miswritten
    mow mowed mowed / mown

    N
    No irregular verbs beginning with "N."

    Última edición por Compilator el Dom Jul 27, 2008 2:05 pm, editado 2 veces
    Compilator


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    Re: Irregular verbs
    por Compilator el Dom Jul 27, 2008 10:10 am

    Irregular verbs II



    O
    offset offset offset
    outbid outbid outbid
    outbreed outbred outbred
    outdo outdid outdone
    outdraw outdrew outdrawn
    outdrink outdrank outdrunk
    outdrive outdrove outdriven
    outfight outfought outfought
    outfly outflew outflown
    outgrow outgrew outgrown
    outleap outleaped / outleapt [?] outleaped / outleapt [?]
    outlie (not tell truth) REGULAR outlied outlied
    outride outrode outridden
    outrun outran outrun
    outsell outsold outsold
    outshine outshined / outshone [?] outshined / outshone [?]
    outshoot outshot outshot
    outsing outsang outsung
    outsit outsat outsat
    outsleep outslept outslept
    outsmell outsmelled / outsmelt [?] outsmelled / outsmelt [?]
    outspeak outspoke outspoken
    outspeed outsped outsped
    outspend outspent outspent
    outswear outswore outsworn
    outswim outswam outswum
    outthink outthought outthought
    outthrow outthrew outthrown
    outwrite outwrote outwritten
    overbid overbid overbid
    overbreed overbred overbred
    overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
    overbuy overbought overbought
    overcome overcame overcome
    overdo overdid overdone
    overdraw overdrew overdrawn
    overdrink overdrank overdrunk
    overeat overate overeaten
    overfeed overfed overfed
    overhang overhung overhung
    overhear overheard overheard
    overlay overlaid overlaid
    overpay overpaid overpaid
    override overrode overridden
    overrun overran overrun
    oversee oversaw overseen
    oversell oversold oversold
    oversew oversewed oversewn / oversewed
    overshoot overshot overshot
    oversleep overslept overslept
    overspeak overspoke overspoken
    overspend overspent overspent
    overspill overspilled / overspilt [?] overspilled / overspilt [?]
    overtake overtook overtaken
    overthink overthought overthought
    overthrow overthrew overthrown
    overwind overwound overwound
    overwrite overwrote overwritten



    P
    partake partook partaken
    pay paid paid
    plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
    prebuild prebuilt prebuilt
    predo predid predone
    premake premade premade
    prepay prepaid prepaid
    presell presold presold
    preset preset preset
    preshrink preshrank preshrunk
    proofread proofread proofread
    prove proved proven / proved
    put put put

    Q
    quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
    quit quit / quitted [?] quit / quitted [?]



    R
    read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red")
    reawake reawoke reawaken
    rebid rebid rebid
    rebind rebound rebound
    rebroadcast rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebroadcast / rebroadcasted
    rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
    recast recast recast
    recut recut recut
    redeal redealt redealt
    redo redid redone
    redraw redrew redrawn
    refit (replace parts) refit / refitted [?] refit / refitted [?]
    refit (retailor) refitted / refit [?] refitted / refit [?]
    regrind reground reground
    regrow regrew regrown
    rehang rehung rehung
    rehear reheard reheard
    reknit reknitted / reknit reknitted / reknit
    relay (for example tiles) relaid relaid
    relay (pass along) REGULAR relayed relayed
    relearn relearned / relearnt [?] relearned / relearnt [?]
    relight relit / relighted relit / relighted
    remake remade remade
    repay repaid repaid
    reread reread reread
    rerun reran rerun
    resell resold resold
    resend resent resent
    reset reset reset
    resew resewed resewn / resewed
    retake retook retaken
    reteach retaught retaught
    retear retore retorn
    retell retold retold
    rethink rethought rethought
    retread retread retread
    retrofit retrofitted / retrofit [?] retrofitted / retrofit [?]
    rewake rewoke / rewaked rewaken / rewaked
    rewear rewore reworn
    reweave rewove / reweaved rewoven / reweaved
    rewed rewed / rewedded rewed / rewedded
    rewet rewet / rewetted [?] rewet / rewetted [?]
    rewin rewon rewon
    rewind rewound rewound
    rewrite rewrote rewritten
    rid rid rid
    ride rode ridden
    ring rang rung
    rise rose risen
    roughcast roughcast roughcast
    run ran run

    Última edición por Compilator el Dom Jul 27, 2008 2:09 pm, editado 1 vez
    Compilator


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    Re: Irregular verbs
    por Compilator el Dom Jul 27, 2008 10:10 am

    Irregular verbs III



    S
    sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast
    saw sawed sawed / sawn
    say said said
    see saw seen
    seek sought sought
    sell sold sold
    send sent sent
    set set set
    sew sewed sewn / sewed
    shake shook shaken
    shave shaved shaved / shaven
    shear sheared sheared / shorn
    shed shed shed
    shine shined / shone [?] shined / shone [?]
    shit shit / shat / shitted shit/ shat / shitted
    shoot shot shot
    show showed shown / showed
    shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
    shut shut shut
    sight-read sight-read sight-read
    sing sang sung
    sink sank / sunk sunk
    sit sat sat
    slay (kill) slew / slayed slain / slayed
    slay (amuse) REGULAR slayed slayed
    sleep slept slept
    slide slid slid
    sling slung slung
    slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
    slit slit slit
    smell smelled / smelt [?] smelled / smelt [?]
    sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
    sow sowed sown / sowed
    speak spoke spoken
    speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
    spell spelled / spelt [?] spelled / spelt [?]
    spend spent spent
    spill spilled / spilt [?] spilled / spilt [?]
    spin spun spun
    spit spit / spat spit / spat
    split split split
    spoil spoiled / spoilt [?] spoiled / spoilt [?]
    spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
    spread spread spread
    spring sprang / sprung sprung
    stand stood stood
    steal stole stolen
    stick stuck stuck
    sting stung stung
    stink stunk / stank stunk
    strew strewed strewn / strewed
    stride strode stridden
    strike (delete) struck stricken
    strike (hit) struck struck / stricken
    string strung strung
    strive strove / strived striven / strived
    sublet sublet sublet
    sunburn sunburned / sunburnt [?] sunburned / sunburnt [?]
    swear swore sworn
    sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
    sweep swept swept
    swell swelled swollen / swelled
    swim swam swum
    swing swung swung



    T
    take took taken
    teach taught taught
    tear tore torn
    telecast telecast telecast
    tell told told
    test-drive test-drove test-driven
    test-fly test-flew test-flown
    think thought thought
    throw threw thrown
    thrust thrust thrust
    tread trod trodden / trod
    typecast typecast typecast
    typeset typeset typeset
    typewrite typewrote typewritten

    U
    unbend unbent unbent
    unbind unbound unbound
    unclothe unclothed / unclad [?] unclothed / unclad [?]
    underbid underbid underbid
    undercut undercut undercut
    underfeed underfed underfed
    undergo underwent undergone
    underlie underlay underlain
    undersell undersold undersold
    underspend underspent underspent
    understand understood understood
    undertake undertook undertaken
    underwrite underwrote underwritten
    undo undid undone
    unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
    unhang unhung unhung
    unhide unhid unhidden
    unknit unknitted / unknit unknitted / unknit
    unlearn unlearned / unlearnt [?] unlearned / unlearnt [?]
    unsew unsewed unsewn / unsewed
    unsling unslung unslung
    unspin unspun unspun
    unstick unstuck unstuck
    unstring unstrung unstrung
    unweave unwove / unweaved unwoven / unweaved
    unwind unwound unwound
    uphold upheld upheld
    upset upset upset

    V
    No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with "V."



    W
    wake woke / waked woken / waked
    waylay waylaid waylaid
    wear wore worn
    weave wove / weaved woven / weaved
    wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
    weep wept wept
    wet wet / wetted [?] wet / wetted [?]
    whet REGULAR whetted whetted
    win won won
    wind wound wound
    withdraw withdrew withdrawn
    withhold withheld withheld
    withstand withstood withstood
    wring wrung wrung
    write wrote written

    X
    No irregular verbs beginning with "X."

    Y
    No irregular verbs beginning with "Y."

    Z
    No irregular verbs beginning with "Z."

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      Fecha y hora actual: Dom Nov 19, 2017 5:55 am