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    Cosas de inglés.

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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:16 pm

    GERUNDIOS E INFINITIVOS:

    Gerunds and infinitives
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 5:19 pm

    Gerunds and Infinitives



    1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

    Examples:
    Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence
    Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence
    I enjoy reading. object of sentence

    Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."

    Examples:
    He enjoys not working.
    The best thing for your health is not smoking.


    2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

    Examples:
    To learn is important. subject of sentence
    The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence
    He wants to learn. object of sentence

    Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."

    Examples:
    I decided not to go.
    The most important thing is not to give up.


    3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence.

    Examples:
    Learning is important. normal subject
    To learn is important. abstract subject - less common
    The most important thing is learning. normal complement
    The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common


    4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.

    Examples:
    He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund.
    He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.

    5. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.

    List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds

    Examples:
    She suggested going to a movie.
    Mary keeps talking about her problems.



    6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives.

    List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives

    Examples:
    She wants to go to a movie.
    Mary needs to talk about her problems.

    7. Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John's, Mary's, the machine's, and so on. This makes it clearer who or what is performing the action.

    Examples:
    I enjoyed their singing. They were singing.
    She understood his saying no to the offer. He said no.
    Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner. Debbie came late to the dinner.
    We discussed the machine's being broken. The machine is broken.


    8. Some verbs are followed by a noun plus an infinitive. In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.

    List of Verbs Followed by a Noun + an Infinitive

    Examples:
    The police ordered the man to stop. noun is required
    She asked to leave. noun is optional
    She asked him to leave. noun is optional


    9. Some verbs are usually followed by a gerund, BUT they can also be followed by a noun plus infinitive. Using a noun plus infinitive will usually change who is performing the action.

    List of Verbs followed by a Gerund OR a Noun + Infinitive

    Examples:
    I advised taking the train. in general
    I advised him to take the train. He will take the train.


    10. There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities.

    List of Go + Gerund Combinations

    Examples:
    I go swimming every weekend.
    Would you ever go skydiving?



    11. Gerunds are used after prepositions. Most commonly, these are "verb + preposition" combinations.

    For reference, see the Verb + Preposition Dictionary and the Phrasal Verb Dictionary. You don't have to memorize these resources, you just need to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions!

    Examples:
    They admitted to committing the crime.
    Leslie made up for forgetting my birthday.
    He is thinking about studying abroad.


    12. Remember that there are many "adjective + preposition" combinations and "noun + preposition" combinations in English as well. These are also followed by gerunds.

    List of Adjective + Preposition Combinations Followed by Gerunds and List of Noun + Preposition Combinations Followed by Gerunds.

    Once again, you don't have to memorize these resources, you just need to remember that gerunds are used after prepositions!

    Examples:
    Sandy is scared of flying. adjective + preposition
    Nick is anxious about taking the examination. adjective + preposition
    His interest in becoming a professional snowboarder was well known. noun + preposition
    Thomas' story about seeing a grizzly bear was really exciting. noun + preposition


    13. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.

    List of Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive (Different Meaning)


    Examples:
    Nancy remembered getting married. Nancy has a memory of getting married.
    Fred remembered to bring sunblock to the beach. Fred remembered that he needed to bring sunblock.


    14. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with little difference in meaning.

    List of Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive (Similar Meaning)


    Examples:
    She likes swimming.
    She likes to swim.

    Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. Using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. Using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.

    Examples:
    The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there.
    The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the United States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the United States.
    I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language.
    I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.


    15. There are many "be + adjective" combinations that are commonly followed by infinitives.

    List of Be + Adjective Combinations Followed by Infinitives

    Examples:
    They were anxious to begin.
    She was delighted to receive such good feedback.
    He is lucky to have such good friends.



    16. There are also many nouns that are commonly followed by infinitives.

    List of Nouns Followed by Infinitives


    Examples:
    It was a good decision to move to San Francisco.
    His wish to become an actor was well known.
    Laura's desire to improve impressed me.


    17. Sometimes infinitives are used to express the idea of "in order to do something."

    Examples:
    He bought the English dictionary to look up difficult words. in order to look up
    Janine sold her car to get the money that she needed. in order to get
    Juan uses "Sabinaringles.foros.tv" to learn English. in order to learn

    This idea of "in order to do something" is found in many English patterns.

    Too + adjective/adverb + infinitive

    Examples:
    The box is too heavy to carry.
    The television is too expensive to buy.
    Fiona ran too slowly to win the race.
    We arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie.

    Adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive

    Examples:
    She is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf.
    Brian was smart enough to enter college at the age of 12.
    Linda runs quickly enough to win the race.

    Enough + noun(s) + infinitive

    Examples:
    He has enough money to buy his own car.
    Cheryl owns enough books to start her own library!
    Diane needs enough time to finish writing her book.


    18. Certain expressions are followed by "ING" forms.

    List of Expressions followed by Verb+ing Forms

    Examples:
    He had fun fishing.
    They had difficulty finding a parking place.
    She spent her time practicing the piano.


    19. Verbs which indicate location can often be followed by "ING" forms. This pattern is VERB OF LOCATION + LOCATION + VERB+ING.

    List of Verbs of Location

    Examples:
    Sarah stood at the corner waiting for Tom.
    Melissa lay in bed thinking about her future.
    Don clung to the side of the cliff looking down.


    20. In addition to simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are progressive gerund and infinitive forms, passive gerund and infinitive forms and perfect gerund and infinitive forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressive forms are used to emphasize that an action is taking place now. Passive forms are used to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to emphasize completion in both the past and the future. Study the examples below to help understand these concepts.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:18 pm

    VERBOS Y GERUNDIOS:

    Verb + Gerund
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 5:11 pm

    Verbs Followed by Gerunds


    9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
    13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
    14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning



    admit ----------> He admitted cheating on the test.
    advise [9] ---------->The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
    allow [9] ---------->Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
    anticipate ---------->I anticipated arriving late.
    appreciate----------> I appreciated her helping me.
    avoid ---------->He avoided talking to her.
    begin [14] ---------->I began learning Chinese.
    can't bear [14] ---------->He can't bear having so much responsibility.
    can't help----------> He can't help talking so loudly.
    can't see ---------->I can't see paying so much money for a car.
    can't stand [14] ---------->He can't stand her smoking in the office.
    cease [14]----------> The government ceased providing free healthcare.
    complete ---------->He completed renovating the house.
    consider ---------->She considered moving to New York.
    continue [14] ---------->He continued talking.
    defend ---------->The lawyer defended her making such statements.
    delay ---------->He delayed doing his taxes.
    deny ---------->He denied committing the crime.
    despise ---------->She despises waking up early.
    discuss----------> We discussed working at the company.
    dislike ---------->She dislikes working after 5 PM.
    don't mind ---------->I don't mind helping you.
    dread [13] ---------->She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
    encourage [9] ---------->He encourages eating healthy foods.
    enjoy ---------->We enjoy hiking.
    finish [13] ---------->He finished doing his homework.
    forget [13] ---------->I forgot giving you my book.
    hate [14]----------> I hate cleaning the bathroom.
    imagine ---------->He imagines working there one day.
    involve ---------->The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
    keep----------> She kept interrupting me.
    like [14] ---------->She likes listening to music.



    love [14]----------> I love swimming.
    mention----------> He mentioned going to that college.
    mind ---------->Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes.
    miss----------> She misses living near the beach.
    need [13] ---------->The aquarium needs cleaning.
    neglect [14] ---------->Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
    permit [9]----------> California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
    postpone ---------->He postponed returning to Paris.
    practice----------> She practiced singing the song.
    prefer [14] ---------->He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
    propose [14] ---------->I proposed having lunch at the beach.
    quit [13] ---------->She quit worrying about the problem.
    recall ---------->Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.
    recollect ---------->She recollected living in Kenya.
    recommend ---------->Tony recommended taking the train.
    regret [13]----------> She regretted saying that.
    remember [13] ---------->I remember telling her the address yesterday.
    report----------> He reported her stealing the money.
    require [9] ---------->The certificate requires completing two courses.
    resent ---------->Nick resented Debbie's being there.
    resist ---------->He resisted asking for help.
    risk ---------->He risked being caught.
    start [14]----------> He started studying harder.
    stop [13] ---------->She stopped working at 5 o'clock.
    suggest ---------->They suggested staying at the hotel.
    tolerate----------> I tolerated her talking.
    try [13] ---------->Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
    understand ---------->I understand his quitting.
    urge [9] ---------->They urge recycling bottles and paper
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:19 pm

    VERBOS E INFINITIVOS:

    Verb + Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 5:08 pm

    Verbs Followed by Infinitives

    8 = verb followed by an infinitive OR an optional noun + an infinitive
    13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
    14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning



    agree ----------> Tom agreed to help me.
    appear----------> His health appeared to be better.
    arrange----------> Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.
    ask [8] ----------> She asked to leave.
    begin [13] ----------> He began to talk.
    can't bear [14] ----------> He can't bear to be alone.
    can't stand [14]----------> Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.
    care----------> He doesn't care to participate in the activity.
    cease [14] ----------> The government ceased to provide free healthcare.
    choose [8]----------> I chose to help.
    claim ----------> She claimed to be a princess.
    continue [14] ----------> She continued to talk.
    decide----------> We decided to go to Hawaii.
    demand ----------> He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.
    deserve ----------> He deserves to go to jail.
    dread [13]----------> I dread to think what might happen.
    expect [8] ----------> They expect to arrive early.
    fail ----------> He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.
    forget [13] ----------> I forgot to lock the door when I left.
    get (be allowed to)----------> Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?
    happen----------> She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.
    hate [14] ----------> He hates to clean dishes.
    hesitate----------> She hesitated to tell me the problem.
    hope----------> I hope to begin college this year.
    intend ----------> We intend to visit you next spring.
    learn ----------> I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.
    like [14] ----------> Samantha likes to read.
    love [14]----------> We love to scuba dive.
    manage ----------> He managed to open the door without the key.
    need [8,13] ----------> I need to study.
    neglect [14] ----------> She neglected to tell me the date of the meeting.
    offer ----------> Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.
    plan ----------> We plan to go to Europe this summer.
    prefer [14] ----------> He prefers to eat at 7 PM.
    prepare [8] ----------> They prepared to take the test.
    pretend ----------> The child pretended to be a monster.
    promise [8] ----------> She promised to stop smoking.
    propose [14] ----------> Drew proposed to pay for the trip.
    refuse----------> The guard refused to let them enter the building.
    regret [13] ----------> I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.
    remember [13] ----------> Did you remember to lock the door when you left?
    seem ----------> Nancy seemed to be disappointed.
    start [13]----------> Marge started to talk really fast.
    swear ----------> She swore to tell the truth.
    tend ----------> He tends to be a little shy.
    threaten [8] ----------> He threatened to leave forever.
    try [13]----------> Mary tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy.
    vow----------> He vowed to get revenge.
    wait ----------> She waited to buy a movie ticket.
    want [8]----------> I want to study Spanish.
    wish [8] ----------> I wish to stay.
    would like [8] (meaning "wish" or "want")----------> We would like to start now.
    yearn ----------> Melanie yearns to travel somewhere exotic.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:21 pm

    VERBOS + NOMBRES + INFINITIVOS:

    Verb + Noun + Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 5:02 pm

    Verbs Followed by Nouns + Infinitives

    9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
    13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning

    List 1: Verb + Required Noun + Infinitive



    advise [9] ----------> I advised them to see a doctor.
    allow [9] ----------> Ireland doesn't allow people to smoke in bars.
    cause ----------> He caused her to make a mistake.
    convince ----------> Ned convinced me to quit my job.
    enable ----------> Financial aid enabled the students to pay such expensive tuition fees.
    encourage [9] ----------> He encourages his patients to eat healthy foods.
    force ----------> The commander forced the soldiers to march in the rain.
    get (cause to) ----------> Isabelle got Mike to wash her car.
    hire ----------> Mr. Donelly hired Sarah to work as a receptionist.
    invite ----------> We invited them to join us.
    order ----------> The police ordered him to put his hands in the air.
    permit [9] ----------> California doesn't permit people to fish without a fishing license.
    remind ----------> They reminded me to pay the bills before the end of the month.
    require [9] ----------> The certificate requires students to complete two courses.
    tell ----------> He told me to shut up.
    urge [9] ----------> They urge citizens to recycle bottles and paper.
    warn ----------> She warned him not to be late.

    List 2: Verb + Optional Noun + Infinitive

    Notice in the examples below that the verbs can be followed by an infinitive or a noun plus an infinitive. When a noun is added, it usually changes who or what is performing the action. To understand this better, look at the first verb "ask" and its examples. In the first sentence, she is asking if she herself can leave. In the second sentence, she is requesting that a man leave. Study the examples below and consider how the optional noun changes the meaning.



    ask ----------> She asked to leave. She asked him to leave.
    choose ----------> I chose to help out. I chose him to help out.
    expect ----------> They expect to arrive early. The expect him to arrive early.
    need [13] ----------> I need to clean the house. I need her to clean the house.
    prepare ----------> They prepared to take the test. They prepared her to take the test.
    promise ----------> She promised to stop smoking She promised him to stop smoking.
    threaten ----------> He threatened to leave forever. He threatened her to leave forever.
    want ----------> I want to study Spanish. I want my son to study Spanish.
    wish ----------> I wish to stay. I wish him to stay. rare form
    would like ----------> We would like to start now. We would like him to start now.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:22 pm

    VERBOS + GERUNDIO O NOMBRE + INFINITIVO

    Verb + Gerund or Noun + Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:54 pm

    Verbs Followed by Either Gerunds OR Nouns + Infinitives



    advise ----------> I advised seeing a doctor. I advised them to see a doctor.
    allow----------> Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars. Ireland doesn't allow people to smoke in bars.
    encourage ----------> He encourages eating healthy foods. He encourages his patients to eat healthy foods.
    permit ----------> California doesn't permit fishing without a fishing license. California doesn't permit people to fish without a fishing license.
    require ----------> The certificate requires completing two courses. The certificate requires students to complete two courses.
    urge ----------> They urge recycling bottles and paper. They urge citizens to recycle bottles and paper.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:23 pm

    IR + GERUNDIO

    Go + Gerund
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:52 pm

    Go + Gerund List



    go boating
    go sailing
    go bowling
    go scuba diving
    go bungee jumping
    go shopping
    go camping
    go sightseeing
    go canoeing
    go skateboarding
    go climbing
    go skating
    go dancing
    go skiing
    go fishing
    go skinny-dipping
    go hiking
    go skydiving
    go horseback riding
    go sledding
    go hunting
    go snorkeling
    go jogging
    go snowboarding
    go kayaking
    go spearfishing
    go mountain climbing
    go surfing
    go paragliding
    go trekking
    go parasailing
    go water skiing
    go rollerblading
    go window shopping
    go running
    go windsurfing
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:25 pm

    ADJETIVO + COMBINACIONES DE PREPOSICIONES SEGUIDAS DE GERUNDIOS

    Adjective + Preposition + Gerund/ Noun + Preposition+ Gerund
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:49 pm

    Adjective + Preposition Combinations Followed by Gerunds

    The following is ONLY A SAMPLE LIST of the most commonly used adjective + preposition combinations that can be followed by gerunds.



    accustomed to ----------> He is accustomed to having his own office.
    addicted to ----------> She is addicted to watching TV.
    afraid of ----------> She is afraid of speaking in public.
    anxious about ----------> Norma is anxious about making the presentation.
    bored of ----------> I am bored of doing the same old job.
    capable of ----------> He is capable of winning a gold medal.
    committed to ----------> She is committed to improving her English.
    concerned about ----------> Nancy was concerned about being late.
    content with ----------> Tim is content with winning second place.
    dedicated to ----------> The organization is dedicated to ending poverty.
    devoted to ----------> The money will be devoted to protecting the environment.
    disappointed with ----------> Fiona was disappointed with coming in third place.
    discouraged by ----------> He was discouraged by not getting the job.
    excited about ----------> The researcher was excited about going to Africa.
    famous for ----------> That actor is famous for being extremely weird.
    fond of ----------> She is fond of having picnics.
    frightened of ----------> She is frightened of being alone at night.
    guilty of ----------> The banker was guilty of stealing money.
    happy about ----------> He was happy about winning the lottery.
    interested in ----------> She is interested in becoming a doctor.
    involved in ----------> He was involved in making the movie.
    known for ----------> She was known for causing problems.
    opposed to ----------> They are opposed to building a new road in the park.
    proud of ----------> He was proud of having completed the marathon.
    remembered for ----------> She is remembered for protecting mountain gorillas.
    responsible for ----------> He is responsible for causing the damage.
    scared of ----------> Tina is scared of being alone at night.
    terrified of ----------> The surfer is terrified of being attacked by a shark.
    tired from----------> She is tired from working all day.
    tired of ----------> Margaret is tired of making dinner every night.
    worried about ----------> The hikers were worried about not having enough water.


    Noun + Preposition Combinations Followed by Gerunds

    The following is ONLY A SAMPLE LIST of the most commonly used noun + preposition combinations that can be followed by gerunds.



    addiction to ----------> His addiction to surfing the Internet is a problem.
    advantage of ----------> He has the advantage of speaking English fluently.
    anxiety about ----------> Her anxiety about speaking in public caused her to lose the job.
    belief in ----------> His belief in not harming animals was something he learned from his mother.
    credit for ----------> She took credit for improving the filing system.
    dedication to----------> His dedication to teaching was impressive.
    delay in----------> The delay in processing the visa caused problems.
    devotion to ----------> His devotion to biking allowed him to win the competition.
    disadvantage of ----------> The disadvantage of flying is that you can't see the scenery along the way.
    experience in ----------> She has a great deal of experience in introducing new products to international markets.
    With the noun "experience," sometimes a gerund is added without the preposition "in." ----------> "Experience introducing new products" would also be acceptable.
    fear of ----------> His fear of flying made travel difficult.
    fondness for ----------> Her fondness for traveling led to her career in the travel industry.
    habit of ----------> His habit of smoking in restaurants caused many problems in California.
    interest in ----------> Her career as a pilot evolved out of her interest in flying.
    knowledge of ----------> Her knowledge of climbing helped her during the competition.
    love of ----------> His love of singing developed when he was a child.
    memory of ----------> Their memories of traveling in Africa will stay with them forever.
    preference for ----------> I think his preference for speaking his native language is natural.
    process of ----------> The process of painting such a large mural is more complicated than you might think.
    reaction to ----------> His reaction to winning the prize was quite funny.
    reason for ----------> The main reason for taking the course is to improve your language skills.
    regret for ----------> The criminal's regret for committing the crime did not convince the judge.
    report on ----------> The magazine's report on choosing the right car was not well researched.
    reputation for ----------> Her reputation for lying is well known.
    responsibility for ----------> His responsibility for completing the project on time was acknowledged by the company.
    story about ----------> I don't know if I believe his story about seeing a UFO.
    talent for ----------> His talent for learning languages was impressive.
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:26 pm

    VERBOS + GERUNDIOS O INFINITIVOS

    Verb + Gerund or Infinitive

    Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (Different Meaning)



    begin

    ----------> She began singing.
    ---------->She began to sing.
    When "begin" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

    ---------->She is beginning to sing.
    When "begin" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

    dread

    ---------->She dreaded taking the test.
    Usually "dread" is followed by a gerund.

    ----------> He dreaded to think of the consequences of his actions.
    "Dread" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "think" or "consider." In the sentence above, "dreaded to think" means "did not want to think."

    forget

    ----------> She forgot reading the book when she was a kid.
    When "forget" is used with a gerund, it means "to forget that you have done something." The sentence above means that she read the book when she was a kid, and that she has forgotten that fact.

    ----------> She forgot to pay the rent this month.
    When forget is used with an infinitive, it means "to forget that you need to do something." The sentence above means that she forgot that she needed to pay the rent.

    keep

    ----------> She kept talking.
    "Keep" is normally used with a gerund to mean that you continue doing an action.

    ----------> The attackers kept hostages to prevent the police from entering.
    "Keep" can also be used with an object followed by an infinitive, but then the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to... ." In the sentence above, the attackers kept hostages in order to prevent the police from entering.

    need

    ----------> The house needs cleaning.
    When "need" is used with a gerund, it takes on a passive meaning. The sentence above means "the house needs to be cleaned."

    ----------> He needs to call his boss.
    ----------> He needs him to call his boss.
    "Need" is usually used with an infinitive or an object + an infinitive.

    regret

    ----------> I regretted being late to the interview.
    "Regret" is normally used with a gerund.

    ----------> We regret to inform you that your position at the company is being eliminated.
    "Regret" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above, "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you (bad news)."

    remember

    ----------> I remember mentioning the meeting yesterday.
    When "remember" is used with a gerund, it means "to remember that you have done something." The sentence above means that I mentioned the meeting, and that I remember the fact that I did that.

    ----------> He remembered to turn off the lights before he left.
    When "remember" is used with an infinitive, it means "to remember that you need to do something." The sentence above means that he remembered that he needed to turn the lights off.

    start

    ----------> Marge started talking really fast.
    ----------> Marge started to talk really fast.
    When "start" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

    ----------> Marge is starting to talk really fast.
    When "start" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

    ----------> I started to learn Russian, but it was so much work that I finally quit the class.
    In other situations, an infinitive means that you did not complete or continue an action.

    stop

    ----------> He stopped smoking for health reasons.
    "Stop" is normally used with a gerund.

    ----------> He stopped to rest for a few minutes.
    When "stop" is used with an infinitive, the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to." In the sentence above, he stopped in order to rest for a few minutes.

    try
    ----------> She can't find a job. She tried looking in the paper, but there was nothing. She tried asking friends and family, but nobody knew of anything. She also tried going shop to shop, but nobody was hiring.
    "Try + gerund" means to try or to experiment with different methods to see if something works.

    ----------> She tried eating the snake soup, but she didn't like it.
    "Try + gerund" is often used when you experiment with something, but you do not really like it or want to do it again.

    ----------> She tried to climb the tree, but she couldn't even get off the ground.
    When you "try to do" something, you want to do it, but you do not succeed in actually doing it. In the sentence above, an infinitive is used because she cannot successfully climb the tree.

    ----------> Try not to wake the baby when you get up tomorrow at 5 AM.
    An infinitive is also used if you are asking someone to try something they may or may not be able to accomplish.



    Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (Similar Meaning)

    can't bear
    He can't bear being alone.
    He can't bear to be alone.

    can't stand
    Nancy can't stand working the late shift.
    Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.

    cease
    The government ceased providing free health care.
    The government ceased to provide free health care.

    continue
    She continued talking.
    She continued to talk.

    hate
    He hates cleaning dishes.
    He hates to clean dishes.

    like
    Samantha likes reading.
    Samantha likes to read.

    love
    We love scuba diving.
    We love to scuba dive.

    neglect
    He neglected doing his daily chores.
    He neglected to do his daily chores.

    prefer
    He prefers eating at 7 PM.
    He prefers to eat at 7 PM.

    propose
    Drew proposed paying for the trip.
    Drew proposed to pay for the trip.

    REMEMBER
    Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. Using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. Using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.

    Examples:

    *The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there.
    *The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the United States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the United States.
    *I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language.
    *I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.
    avatar
    Gustavo
    Admin

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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:27 pm

    VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE GERUNDIOS O INFINITIVOS:

    Verb + Gerund or Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:46 pm

    Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (Different Meaning)



    begin

    ----------> She began singing.
    ---------->She began to sing.
    When "begin" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

    ---------->She is beginning to sing.
    When "begin" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

    dread

    ---------->She dreaded taking the test.
    Usually "dread" is followed by a gerund.

    ----------> He dreaded to think of the consequences of his actions.
    "Dread" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "think" or "consider." In the sentence above, "dreaded to think" means "did not want to think."

    forget

    ----------> She forgot reading the book when she was a kid.
    When "forget" is used with a gerund, it means "to forget that you have done something." The sentence above means that she read the book when she was a kid, and that she has forgotten that fact.

    ----------> She forgot to pay the rent this month.
    When forget is used with an infinitive, it means "to forget that you need to do something." The sentence above means that she forgot that she needed to pay the rent.

    keep

    ----------> She kept talking.
    "Keep" is normally used with a gerund to mean that you continue doing an action.

    ----------> The attackers kept hostages to prevent the police from entering.
    "Keep" can also be used with an object followed by an infinitive, but then the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to... ." In the sentence above, the attackers kept hostages in order to prevent the police from entering.

    need

    ----------> The house needs cleaning.
    When "need" is used with a gerund, it takes on a passive meaning. The sentence above means "the house needs to be cleaned."

    ----------> He needs to call his boss.
    ----------> He needs him to call his boss.
    "Need" is usually used with an infinitive or an object + an infinitive.

    regret

    ----------> I regretted being late to the interview.
    "Regret" is normally used with a gerund.

    ----------> We regret to inform you that your position at the company is being eliminated.
    "Regret" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above, "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you (bad news)."

    remember

    ----------> I remember mentioning the meeting yesterday.
    When "remember" is used with a gerund, it means "to remember that you have done something." The sentence above means that I mentioned the meeting, and that I remember the fact that I did that.

    ----------> He remembered to turn off the lights before he left.
    When "remember" is used with an infinitive, it means "to remember that you need to do something." The sentence above means that he remembered that he needed to turn the lights off.

    start

    ----------> Marge started talking really fast.
    ----------> Marge started to talk really fast.
    When "start" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

    ----------> Marge is starting to talk really fast.
    When "start" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

    ----------> I started to learn Russian, but it was so much work that I finally quit the class.
    In other situations, an infinitive means that you did not complete or continue an action.

    stop

    ----------> He stopped smoking for health reasons.
    "Stop" is normally used with a gerund.

    ----------> He stopped to rest for a few minutes.
    When "stop" is used with an infinitive, the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to." In the sentence above, he stopped in order to rest for a few minutes.

    try
    ----------> She can't find a job. She tried looking in the paper, but there was nothing. She tried asking friends and family, but nobody knew of anything. She also tried going shop to shop, but nobody was hiring.
    "Try + gerund" means to try or to experiment with different methods to see if something works.

    ----------> She tried eating the snake soup, but she didn't like it.
    "Try + gerund" is often used when you experiment with something, but you do not really like it or want to do it again.

    ----------> She tried to climb the tree, but she couldn't even get off the ground.
    When you "try to do" something, you want to do it, but you do not succeed in actually doing it. In the sentence above, an infinitive is used because she cannot successfully climb the tree.

    ----------> Try not to wake the baby when you get up tomorrow at 5 AM.
    An infinitive is also used if you are asking someone to try something they may or may not be able to accomplish.



    Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (Similar Meaning)

    can't bear
    He can't bear being alone.
    He can't bear to be alone.

    can't stand
    Nancy can't stand working the late shift.
    Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.

    cease
    The government ceased providing free health care.
    The government ceased to provide free health care.

    continue
    She continued talking.
    She continued to talk.

    hate
    He hates cleaning dishes.
    He hates to clean dishes.

    like
    Samantha likes reading.
    Samantha likes to read.

    love
    We love scuba diving.
    We love to scuba dive.

    neglect
    He neglected doing his daily chores.
    He neglected to do his daily chores.

    prefer
    He prefers eating at 7 PM.
    He prefers to eat at 7 PM.

    propose
    Drew proposed paying for the trip.
    Drew proposed to pay for the trip.

    REMEMBER
    Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. Using a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. Using an infinitive suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably, such as in the examples below.

    Examples:

    *The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes what he experiences there.
    *The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the United States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in the United States.
    *I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the language.
    *I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French when I am in France.
    avatar
    Gustavo
    Admin

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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:28 pm

    BE + ADJETIVO + INFINITIVO

    Be + Adjective + Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:38 pm

    Be + Adjective Combinations Followed by Infinitives



    be amazed ----------> He was amazed to discover the truth.
    be anxious ---------->She was anxious to start her new job.
    be ashamed----------> He was ashamed to admit he had lied.
    be bound ---------->She is bound to be elected class president.
    be careful ---------->They were careful not to reveal the winner of the prize until the end.
    be certain ---------->She is certain to get the job.
    be content ---------->The student was content to receive second place in the competition.
    be delighted ---------->We were delighted to be invited to the wedding.
    be determined ---------->He was determined to finish the marathon.
    be eager----------> He was eager to begin.
    be eligible ---------->They were not eligible to participate in the program.
    be fortunate ---------->She was fortunate to receive the research grant.
    be glad ---------->I would be glad to help out.
    be happy ---------->She was happy to see them at the party.
    be hesitant----------> Mary was hesitant to say anything.
    be liable ---------->The mountain climber is liable to hurt himself if he doesn't use well-made equipment.
    be likely ---------->They are likely to show up at any time.
    be lucky ---------->You were lucky to have such an opportunity.
    be pleased----------> I am pleased to meet you.
    be proud ---------->He was proud to have been chosen to lead the project.
    be ready ---------->I'm ready to go now.
    be reluctant----------> The witness was reluctant to reveal what he had seen.
    be sad ---------->She was really sad to leave.
    be shocked ---------->He was shocked to discover the truth.
    be sorry ---------->I am sorry to have to tell you that the tickets are sold out.
    be surprised ---------->She was surprised to discover that he had never learned how to swim.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:29 pm

    NOMBRES + INFINITIVO:

    Noun + Infinitive
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:02 pm

    Nouns Followed by Infinitives



    advice ----------> His advice to continue was good.
    appeal ----------> The appeal to reduce pollution was ineffective.
    attempt ----------> Her attempt to locate them was unsuccessful.
    chance ----------> In Britain, you will have a chance to improve your English.
    decision ----------> The decision to increase taxes was not popular.
    desire ----------> His desire to get a good job motivated him.
    dream ----------> Her dream to become an actress was never realized.
    goal ----------> His goal to run a marathon seemed unrealistic.
    motivation ----------> Her motivation to enter university impressed them.
    need ----------> Bob's need to be the center of attention was irritating.
    opportunity ----------> The opportunity to live in New York interested Sandra.
    order ----------> They followed the general's order to retreat.
    permission ----------> Permission to enter the area was difficult to get.
    plan ----------> Sandy's plan to move to Madrid bothered her parents.
    preparation ----------> NASA's preparations to launch on Monday moved forward.
    proposal ----------> Her proposal to host the party impressed the committee.
    recommendation ----------> His recommendation to close the school upset the community.
    refusal ----------> Debra's refusal to help did not go unnoticed.
    reminder ----------> Her reminder to review the vocabulary helped me pass the test.
    request ----------> Their request to participate was granted.
    requirement ----------> Their requirement to speak four languages was unreasonable.
    suggestion ----------> His suggestion to leave seemed like a good idea.
    tendency ----------> His tendency to tap his desk during a test annoyed me.
    wish ----------> Her wish to be treated normally was respected.
    way ----------> One way to improve your English is to read novels.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:30 pm

    EXPRESIONES + GERUNDIO:

    Expressions + Gerund
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 4:00 pm

    Expressions followed by VERB+ing



    have (some) problems ----------> He had some problems reading without his glasses.
    have a difficult time ---------->She had a difficult time hiking up the mountain.
    have a good time----------> They had a good time snorkeling.
    have a hard time ---------->She had a hard time explaining the situation.
    have a problem ---------->Debbie had a problem understanding his accent.
    have an easy time ---------->She had an easy time selling the delicious cookies.
    have difficulty ---------->Wanda had difficulty translating the letter by herself.
    have fun ---------->They had fun skiing.
    have no difficulty ---------->They had no difficulty finding a discount flight to London.
    have no problem ---------->Francis had no problem getting from the airport to the hotel.
    spend one's time ----------> He always spends his time working out at the gym.
    waste one's time ---------->She always wastes her time playing video games.
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    Gustavo
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    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Gustavo el Jue Nov 27, 2008 7:32 pm

    VERBOS LOCATIVOS + GERUNDIO

    Verbs of location + Gerund
    por Compilator el Lun Jul 21, 2008 10:55 am

    Location Verbs Followed by VERB+ing



    cling (aferrarse) ---------> She clung to the bottom of the bridge trying to resist the swift current.
    cower (encogerse de miedo) ----------> The family cowered in their basement hoping the tornado would change directions.
    crouch (agacharse) ----------> The mountain lion crouched on a bolder watching the deer walk by below.
    hang (colgar) ----------> The monkey hung in the tree chewing on the ripened fruit.
    lean (apoyarse) ----------> Tom leaned against the wall resting a few moments before he continued on.
    lie (yacer, tumbarse) ----------> He lay in bed thinking about the day's events.
    sit (sentarse) ----------> She always sits on the couch watching TV.
    stand (estar de pie) ----------> Nancy stood at the corner looking up and down the street.

    Contenido patrocinado

    Re: Cosas de inglés.

    Mensaje por Contenido patrocinado


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